charge enonciative dans trois genres de texts expositifs” (“The Processes of. Enunciation in Three Types of Expository Text”) (Itziar Plazaola. Le texte expositif, quant à lui, est une production dans laquelle les locuteurs créent une structure thématique (Boscolo, ; Britton, ) et fait appel à des . Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie.

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Understanding How Headings Influence Text Processing

More research is needed to interface epositif model with ongoing linguistic studies of the different realizations and functions of headings. In this section, we briefly present the major components of SARA with particular attention to its treatment of headings.

This is unfortunate because it is likely that the titles and headings used in different experiments vary on this dimension in ways that might influence processing.

Within cognitive psychology, headings have been used as a means to manipulate context in order to investigate effects of global context on comprehension and memory processes. However, the two signals are realized differently; whereas the preview sentence is completely lw in its communication that a new section is beginning, the heading communicates this information implicitly by being set off spatially from the preceding and following sections.

The experiments to lr summarized here tested the remaining six information functions. Texxte Theory of Language and Information: In fact, there is a relatively extensive empirical literature in psychology that generally supports the hypothesis that signals may help processing of expository text Lorch, Headings may explicitly communicate the sequential organization of the sections of a text; in fact, headings sometimes consist solely of numbers at the start of each new text section e.

Shortcomings of previous research 7 Despite the useful findings of prior psychological research, there are several shortcomings of the research literature that originate in an inadequate analysis of headings as an expositir of study.


Both the advance outline and the headings provide the same topic-identifying labels for the text sections, but the headings provide the relevant label immediately preceding the relevant section whereas the advance outline provides the label generally far in advance of the relevant sections. They were timed to locate the specific sentences in texts that had topic-identifying exposotif or texts that had headings that did not identify topics. The heading provides a context for integrating subsequent information, but leaves it to the reader to identify or construct the main points of the section.


Many studies fail to provide information about the visual properties of their stimuli. Journal of Educational Psychology 63 4: The Role of Schemas in Reading Text: SARA can indeed be seen as providing a framework for such an interface, situating headings in the broader perspective of a theory of text signals.

The inclusion of headings, for instance, can support readers by identifying major topics and ideas, by emphasizing the structure of the text, and by serving as labels that can support access to sections within the text Waller, Such collaboration will have several benefits for research on text signaling. First, Lorch and Lorch found that readers process a sentence more slowly if its function is explicitly labeled than if the function is not labeled.

In this paper, we briefly review the relevant findings, then we provide a critique of the research literature, arguing that our understanding of how headings influence text processing would benefit from a linguistically-based analysis of headings.

For example, readers in one experiment were required to answer questions that targeted specific sentences within a text.

Titres et structuration des documents.

Journal of Educational Psychology 76 6: Some relevant questions are: Conversely, as already mentioned, an advance outline makes information about the sequential and hierarchical organization of the text more accessible compared to a system of headings.

SARA hypothesizes that any signaling device serves one or more of seven distinguishable information functions: The picture is different when memory is assessed by simply asking readers to recall all that they expositiff remember from the text.

Journal of Educational Psychology 75 2: Within this framework, headings and titles may be defined as text objects that are typographically and spatially distinguished from the rest of the text and whose minimal function is rxpositif label another text object.

Finally, by establishing a context, headings can influence the interpretation of text content by causing readers to use relevant background knowledge to guide comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology 21 3: The question of task relevance is an entirely reader-based consideration: Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11 6: An expository text of any length typically has a complex structure pe poses substantial challenges to readers.


These shortcomings limit the theoretical and practical impact of the research. Cornish, which recur from utterance to utterance, thus creating referential continuity and topical unity.

Topic Continuity in Discourse. Finally, we propose some future research directions integrating insights from linguistics for the study of how headings and titles affect text processing. Thus, the psychological literature presents an informative, coherent body of results on the effects of titles and headings. Contemporary Educational Psychology 33 4: Not only is it the case that conclusions are restricted to topic-identifying headings, but there has also not been etxte careful examination of how their visual realization, informativeness, and relationship to text content may influence text processing.

Texte expositif by Laura Albella Cubedo on Prezi Next

Discourse Processes 47 8: However, this null result is not surprising because headings conventionally communicate information about text organization and recognition memory tests are often insensitive to organizational factors.

Rather, an understanding of the effects of headings and other exoositif devices on text processing must be based on an analysis of the information functions served by the headings. In a prototypical experiment, participants read a text with exposjtif or the same text without headings then receive a test of their memory for content.

Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Signalling Text Organisation: Assuming that the heading is, in fact, an accurate statement of the main point of the section, the reader is relieved of the ambiguity and work of identifying or constructing this conclusion.

It approaches this task by building on the notion of metalanguage Harris, and and key concepts taken from Speech Act Theory Austin, ; Exposigif, ; Searle, and